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Why kidney replacement therapy?

If your kidneys are no longer able to cleanse your body of toxins and excess water, there are different treatment options available which may prolong your life and several ways to maintain your quality of life as much as possible.

Don't feel intimidated by new terminology! Your healthcare team will explain your therapy options in easy-to-understand language.

Tip: The more informed you go into conversations with your physician, the better you can follow the explanations and ask questions.

An overview of the most common therapy options can be found on our therapy options page.

Finding the best option

Each form of treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages and not every therapy may be suitable for you. Together with your healthcare team, you will decide which treatment suits your personal situation best. For this purpose, an intensive discussion will take place with your physician, in which your physical health, the course of your illness, your personal circumstance and your own wishes and needs will be considered.

After the conversation, you will have time to think about your options and decide on a suitable treatment option. Try to involve your relatives and friends in the discussion! Remember that your initial choice is not your only time to choose which treatment may be right for you. Your opinion may change over time, dependent on your individual personal experiences. Try to talk to your healthcare professional team throughout your dialysis journey to make sure you have the right therapy for you.

A brief overview: therapy options


A treatment for kidney failure that removes unwanted toxins, waste products and excess fluid by filtering your blood. The treatment is regularly performed 3 - 7 days each week depending on your medical condition and therapy.


An operation during which a patient with kidney failure receives a new kidney - either from a living or deceased donor.

Conservative treatment

Focus on sustaining the quality of life. Therapy is based on relief from discomfort and the pain of kidney failure symptoms, such as swelling and shortness of breath.

Below, you will find brief information on the individual therapy options. Do not worry! At this point, you do not need to understand everything in detail. Try to learn the main features of each therapy as much as you can. You can decide together with your medical team, family and friends on a suitable therapy option.

Kidney transplant

A transplant may be considered the optimal renal replacement therapy if it is suitable for the patient.

If a suitable donor kidney (either from a deceased organ donor or from a living donor) is available and the tests performed indicate that the kidney matches the patient, it can be transplanted. A single kidney is usually sufficient to maintain filter functions. After the transplant, medications that suppress the immune system are taken so that the new kidney is well accepted by your body. Other medications are also prescribed to make transplantation as flawless as possible.

Unfortunately, the wait time for a donor kidney may be quite long and finding a suitable donor may be difficult, which is why dialysis treatment is often necessary to bridge the gap.


Dialysis is the most common choice to treat end-stage kidney disease. It represents a substitution of the different functions of the human kidney. Together with your physician, you will find ways of integrating the treatment into your everyday life.

Peritoneal dialysis

The term Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) is derived from the peritoneum, which describes the thin, protective structure around the abdominal organs. The abdominal cavity is a unique, enclosed space in the abdomen.

In peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum is used as a natural filter to cleanse the body of waste materials and excess water. This requires a surgically created PD catheter.

PD can be carried out independently at home or any other suitable place.


In Haemodialysis (HD) procedures, the blood is cleansed outside the body using a special machine and an artificial filter. This requires a surgically created vascular access. The cleansed blood is continuously returned to the patient.

Home haemodialysis

Home Haemodialysis (HHD) is carried out in your own home or any other suitable place using the same technique as HD, with some adjustments. This requires having the devices at home and sufficient knowledge to carry out the therapy.

Conservative therapy

You have the right to make your own choices about how to treat kidney failure and may also choose not to start or discontinue dialysis or transplantation. With conservative therapy, your health care team continues your care without dialysis or kidney transplantation. Only your symptoms are treated by taking medication and, if necessary, a supportive form of nutrition. Conservative therapy is not considered a life-prolonging measure and won’t cure kidney disease. 

Learn more about how to create your personal support network in the next section

What is an Adverse Event (AE)

Any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical trial subject administered a medicinal product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment [Dir 2001/20/EC Art 2(m)].

An adverse event can therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign (e.g. an abnormal laboratory finding), symptom, or disease temporarily associated with the use of a medicinal product, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product (Annex 4 Guideline on good pharmacovigilance practices (GVP) Rev 4).

Reporting Side Effects

If you get any side effects, talk to your Doctor, Pharmacist or Nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in the package leaflet. You can also report side effects directly via the Yellow Card Scheme at

By reporting side effects, you can help provide more information on the safety of this medicine.

Report an Adverse Event

Adverse events should be reported. Reporting forms and information can be found at Adverse events should also be reported to Fresenius Medical Care on 01623 445 215 and via

Medical Information

Call 01623 445 100 (please choose option 5). Opening times are Monday - Friday 9am - 5pm.

UK/HEMA/FME/0922/0002 – Date of Preparation September 2022.